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Later it was transformed into the contemporary name of the city that literally means "Lower Newtown".The city traces its origin from a small Russian wooden hillfort that was founded by Grand Duke Yury II in 1221 at the confluence of two of the most important rivers in his principality, the Volga and Oka rivers.
The historical coat of arms of Nizhny Novgorod in 1981 was a red deer with black horns and hooves on a white field.
After 86 years its importance further increased when the seat of the powerful Suzdal Principality was moved here from Gorodets in 1350.
Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich (1323–1383) sought to make his capital a rival worthy of Moscow; he built a stone citadel and several churches and was a patron of historians.
During World War II, Gorky became the biggest provider of military equipment to the front.
Due to this, the Luftwaffe constantly bombed the city from the air.
After being burnt by the powerful Crimean Tatar chief Edigu in 1408, Nizhny Novgorod was restored and regarded by the Muscovites primarily as a great stronghold in their wars against the Tatars of Kazan.
The enormous red-brick kremlin, one of the strongest and earliest preserved citadels in Russia, was built in 1508–1511 under the supervision of Peter the Italian.Nizhny Novgorod is located about 400 km east of Moscow, where the Oka empties into the Volga.Population: The city was founded in 1221 by Prince Yuri II of Vladimir.The modern coat of arms circa 1992 is the same, but the shield can be adorned with golden oak leaves tied with a ribbon with colours of the Russian national flag.In 1817, the Nizhny Novgorod Fair, one of the liveliest in the world, was transferred to Nizhny Novgorod, and started to attract millions of visitors annually.After the war, Gorky became a "closed city" and remained one until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1990.